Russian Civil War, World War II.
During the Russian Civil War Bryansk was one of the main producers of armored trains for the Red Army, Leon Trotsky. Although the first armored train appeared during the Civil War in the U.S. (made Russian colonel Turchaninov) and are currently being used by Chief of the Korean people Kim Chen Irl, the massive use of the armored trains was precisely during the civil war in Russia and…China (Chinese Civil War 1924-1929 period = total amount of the Armored trains was about 100 !). Hundreds of armored trains (!) operating along the railroads were an important factor in the victory of the Red Army over the Russian army and allies.
During World War II the Bryansk region became known thanks to the large partisan (guerrilla) movement. Regular officers of the NKVD specifically left to the territory occupied by Germany to organize partisan units behind enemy lines. The aim was to destroy by partisans the enemy communications, especially railways, disrupted trains with equipment, ammunition depots explosion.
Another object of the partisan was to destroy German soldiers and officers, and getting intelligence information. Squads were formed from remaining behind the lines of the Red Army, a local resident and represented the group of 10 to a few thousand. Oversaw the creation of professional teams – the NKVD to sabotage – diversion work with the participation of the heads of the local Communist Party.
Most units were in the woods, on partisan bases. One of these bases remained near Bryansk as a museum of the Second World War. Base is a dugout, kitchens and other infrastructure.
German authorities have periodically staged punitive expedition to destroy guerrilla bases. Guerrillas in response often changed his position.
Many guerrillas disguised themselves as civilians, wear civilian clothes and lived in cities.
The combination of guerrilla (“underground”) in urban and guerrilla groups in the forests made a great, if not the main contribution to the victory of Stalin over Hitler.
Another secret mission of NKVD were moral and political goals. The purpose of these operations was to increase hostility between Germans-occupiers and local residents. Most of these special operations classified to this day.
Soviet propaganda has worked much better than the propaganda of Hitler, which played a decisive role in the victory of the Soviet people over the enemy.
Well-known name as “rail war”, when both were blown many tracks in the rear of Germany.
In Bryansk a museum “guerrilla base.” This place is a favorite for the “lessons of living history” involving members of military history clubs.
During the “guerrilla tour” our guides not only to tell and show the objects of the military life of the guerrillas, but also provide uniforms for the photo, it is better to feel himself a “partisan.”
Near Bryansk there is another museum where artifacts and historical materials about the guerrilla movement in the Bryansk region.
The importance of the partisan movement marked with the special holiday “Day of partisan”