Sightseeing, historical, Russian cultural and the WW2 battlefields private tours with a guide by a car from Moscow for one day or more.
For many centuries Moscow has been the capital of ancient Russia, the Russian Empire, the USSR and the Russian Federation. The capture of Moscow by enemies could mean the end of Russia as a state, so the battle of Moscow has always been considered the most important battle of every war. The main wars and battles are:
– Mongol-Tatar invasion or the Golden Horde (Middle Ages)
– The Russian-Polish war, the capture of Moscow by the Poles and the liberation (1612)
– Russian-French war, the capture of Moscow by Napoleon (1812)
– Revolution and civil war, the defense of the Kremlin, shooting artillery and machine guns (1917)
– World War II and the attempt to capture by Hitler (1941)
– Parliament Revolution and Defense, tanks (without firing) 1991
– Communist rebellion and defense of the parliament, shooting by the machine guns and tanks (1993)
In the Middle Ages, the line of defense of Moscow consisted of the Kremlin (a fortress on the river) and the surrounding monasteries (fortress + churches) in the Moscow region and over long distances (Mozhaysk, Smolensk, Tula and others). The main enemies were the soldiers of the “Golden Horde” (Mongol-Tatars), who periodically raided.
During the war with Napoleon (1812), the fortress of Smolensk was used for the battle, but for the general battle a large clear field was used in the area of the village of Borodino. Hills were used as observation points or as artillery positions. Fortified structures (redoubts) were installed quickly on the field. During a trip to Borodino, you can see a sample of such a strengthening of the Shevardino Redoubt. The Kremlin was not used for the defense, since Moscow was surrendered without a fight. Kutuzov’s strategy addressed problems for Napoleon’s soldiers with food, road and partisans in the rear. Exhausting the enemy plus “General Frost”.
During World War II, there were several lines of the defense on distant approaches. Anti-tank ditches, trenches, dugouts, the concrete bunkers (DOT’s) and wood bunkers (DZOT’s) were built. Well-preserved fortified area UKR N36 (Mozhaysk – Borodino)
Fortifications (bunkers) began to be built on the outskirts of Moscow. In the capital itself, soldiers occupied the civilian apartments in the houses, the barriers against tanks (hedgehogs) were installed on the streets. In Moscow there should have been a battle as in Stalingrad (when only ruins remained). The NKVD laid mines (huge land mines) in the main buildings: the Bolshoi Theater, palaces, buildings. During Hitler’s occupation of the city, all mines were supposed to explode and destroy buildings along with the troops. Even now, after many years, we find mines and landmines in the basements.
The German army advanced from the northwest and southwest. Many Moscow defense operations are still highly secret. In October 1941 there were rains and roads turned into swamps, impassable for the cars and even German light tanks. In November, frosts appeared. The Soviet command and the NKVD blew up several dams on the main reservoirs in the northwest. Water flooded large spaces, villages (along with people!). Water turned into the ice and the large areas became impassable for German tanks.
In the south-west direction the enemy was stopped in the area of Naro-Fominsk – Kubinka RR station. Naro-Fominsk is a natural fortified area on a hill (Red Army, from Moscow) and a river (from the German offensive). A memorial has been erected here, and on a hill there is now a Russian 4 Guards tank Division. The Kubinka shooting site (polygon) was evacuated to the rear, but some exhibits of the tank museum were used to defend the Kubinka RR station. Two rare experimental exhibits of the museum – the heavy self-propelled gun SU-14 (with a marine gun 152 mm) and SU-100U (130 mm) shot at German units at a distance of 15 kilometers and did not let the enemy get attack. German T-III tanks could only shoot 1-1.5 km. Soviet weapons and equipment were few, not enough. According to legend, the people’s 1941 militia (mobilized civilians) received 1812 model rifles from the Smolensk Museum. Shotguns with a large bayonet are better than a wooden stick.
In the rear of the Germans, a guerrilla war was organized on the model of 1812, but on a large scale. According to the secret order N0428 of the NKVD, special groups of saboteurs and aircraft destroyed all the houses of the local residents within a radius of 40-60 km. off the road. In severe frosts, German soldiers and local residents were left homeless. The most famous hero of setting houses on fire is Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya, whom the Germans caught and hanged.
Panic Day. October 15, 1941 it was decided to evacuate the capital. On October 16, panic and anarchy began. The enemy was in the area of the city of Mozhaysk, not far from Moscow. According to legend, individual tanks and reconnaissance units of the Germans appeared in Moscow itself in the metro area of River Station – Tushinskaya (north-west)
Heavy rains began on October 18-19. On October 19, it was recorded in the combat journal of the headquarters of Army Group Center: “On the night of October 18-19, rains fell across the entire section of the front of the army group. The condition of the roads has deteriorated so much that a serious crisis has occurred in the supply of troops with food, ammunition, and especially fuel. The condition of roads, weather and terrain conditions significantly delayed the course of military operations. The main concern of all compounds is the supply of material and technical means and food. ”November 4 was hit by severe frost.
“Comrade General Moroz“ (Mr. Frost”). The German “blitz krieg” provided for the capture of Moscow in the summer and the autumn, but not in the winter. The “Barbarossa” plan began a few months later. Why? Serbs (Yugoslavia) refused to let German troops pass and the war in Serbia began. Having not received the promised military help from Britain, the Serbian army was destroyed and Yugoslavia was captured by the Germans, but the beginning of the Barbarossa plan was delayed for a several months. The German uniform was summer model. The pilot caps and the thin overcoats were perfect for the war in France in the summer of 1940, but were not suitable for Russian frosts -40 degrees Celsius (once every 20 years, the Germans were not lucky). The NKVD organized the destruction of houses in the rear.
Finally, the explosions of the dam reservoirs in the northwest completely flooded and covered with the ice entire areas. German tanks and armored personnel carriers could not move. This allowed the transfer of many Soviet divisions from the north-west to the south-west.
“Espionage is a serious business“. Soviet super-spy Richard Sorge from Japan informed Comrade Stalin that in the winter of 1941-1942, Japan would not attack the USSR. Its sources are senior officials of the German embassy in Tokyo and generals of the Japanese army. This allowed Stalin to transfer several divisions from Siberia (the Far East) to defend Moscow. These Siberian divisions had men in good health who were accustomed to the cold in Siberia. These divisions also had new winter uniforms: hats (earflaps instead of light “budenovki”) and warm sheepskin coats. These rifle divisions were well adapted for war in the winter in the cold.
All this allowed to stop the German army and go on the counterattack.
The battle for Moscow was won.
About the WW2 Battle of Moscow
The battle for Moscow or the “Typhoon Operation” took place from September 30, 1941 to April 20, 1942 and is divided into 2 periods: defensive (September 30 – December 4, 1941) and offensive.
The defensive period consists of battles on the distant and near approaches to Moscow. The offensive period consists of two stages: the counteroffensive (December 5, 1941 – January 7, 1942) and the general offensive of the Soviet troops (January 7 – March 30, 1942).
The battle took place in a space whose borders in the north ran along the Volga River from Kalyazin to Rzhev, in the west – along the railway line Rzhev – Vyazma – Bryansk, in the south – along the conventional line Ryazhsk – Gorbachevo – Dyatkovo.
The main front-line operations at the defensive stage of the battle: Oryol-Bryansk, Vyazma, Mozhaysk-Maloyaroslavets, Kalinin (Tver), Tula, Klin-Solnechnogorsk and Naro-Fominsk.
One day tour from Moscow
During the one day guided tour from Moscow by a car, you will clearly see the whole history and the culture of old Russia and the USSR. The Russian state was created on the basis of the monasteries and the fortresses with the Orthodox churches inside. The monastery is also an excellent fortress and serves as a defense fortification against the enemy. But the monastery is also a fortress with the beautiful Orthodox churches, which the Soviet government tried, but could not destroy. These cultural sites were also the battlefield areas during the Napoleonic Wars and World War II. The monastery is a good fortress. The hill serves as an artillery position. The bell tower is an excellent observation point for the artillery fire correction.
During the tour you will see in defensive order chronological structures from the period of the Mongol-Tatar invasion to the Second World War. By visiting the old churches of the Napoleonic period, you will feel the history of 1812, as well as Russian history and culture. Having studied the walls and towers of the monasteries, you will learn more about the general history of the Great Russia and its wars in the Middle Ages. On the way you will see the traditional Russian wooden houses (XVIII-XIX centuries) and the villages – real rural life in the depths of the country.
The Museum of the Battle of Borodino will tell you about the Russian Army in 1812. Uniforms, weapons, personal items. The scale model of the battlefield will help you better know where, what and how everything was. We will also visit these main places and famous monuments.
WW2 Concrete bunkers, soldier trenches, artillery positions on the roads and the military guide stories will help you learn more about the battle for Moscow during World War II. Military equipment and monuments on the battlefield are a great backdrop to take photographs as a keepsake.
About one day tour
The one (or more) day tour takes place in a friendly club atmosphere, with our friends and colleagues who are interested in the history, so your request for booking may be refused without any explanation. If you have been given consent and confirmation to trip, it means that you are our friends and the colleagues. In this case, our team (including our friends at the battlefields and the region museums) will do everything possible to ensure that you are satisfied, come to Russia again and again, with the friends or yourself.
Expenses. It is the charges, not the prices, as the program may differ from the planned one. Depends of the time schedule and the selected objects to visit. We indicate the planned charges based on our experience over the past 10 years. Normally for 1-3 persons are about 190 Euros per day (8.30 a.m.-19.30 or latter) plus museum/ site entrance fees (little).
We do not refuse to the tip for our good job or time over, because with this money we buy gifts for the Russian and foreign museums on the flea markets.